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Measuring the Water Cycle

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2020

Durand, M., Chen, C., Frasson,RPM, Pavelsky, TM, Williams, B, Yang, X, and Fore, A. (2020). How will radar layover impact SWOT measurements of water surface elevation and slope, and estimates of river discharge?, Remote Sensing of Environment, 247, doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111883. 

Gleason, CJ, and Durand, M. Remote Sensing of River Discharge: A Review and a Framing for the Discipline, Remote Sensing, 12(7), 1107, doi.org/10.3390/RS12071107.

Coss, S.Durand, M., Yi, Y., Jia, Y., Guo, Q., Tuozzolo, S., Shum, CK, Allen, GH, Calmant, S, and Pavelsky, T., Global River Radar Altimetry Time Series (GRRATS): new river elevation earth science data records for the hydrologic community, 12, 137–150, doi.org/10.5194/ESSD-12-137-2020

2019

Langhorst, T.; Pavelsky, P.; Frasson, R.P.M.Wei, R., Domeneghetti, A., Altenau, E.H., Durand, M.T., Minear, J.T.; Wegmann, K.W.; Matthew, R.F. (2019). Anticipated Improvements to River Surface Elevation Profiles from the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission, Frontiers in Earth Science, 7:102. doi: 10.3389/feart.2019.00102

Kim, D.; Yu, H.; Lee, H.; Beighley, E.; Durand, M.; Alsdorf, D.E.; Hwang, E. (2019). Ensemble learning regression for estimating river discharges using satellite altimetry data: Central Congo River as a Test-bed. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 221, 741-755. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2018.12.010

Tuozzolo, S.; Lind, G.; Overstreet, B.; Mangano, J.; Fonstad, M; Hagemann, M.Frasson, R.; Larnier, K.; Garambois, P.; Monnier, J.; Durand, M. (2019). Estimating River Discharge with Swath Altimetry: A Proof of Concept Using AirSWOT Observations, Geophysical Research Letters 46(3), 1459-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018gl080771

Frasson, R.; Pavelsky, T.; Fonstad, M.; Durand, M.; Allen, G.; Schumann, G.; Lion, C.; Beighley, R.; Yang, X. (2019). Global Relationships Between River Width, Slope, Catchment Area, Meander Wavelength, Sinuosity, and Discharge. Geophysical Research Letters 46(6), 3252-3262. https://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019gl082027

Wrzesien, M.Durand, M.; Pavelsky, T. (2019). A Reassessment of North American River Basin Cool‐Season Precipitation: Developments From a New Mountain Climatology Data Set, Water Resources Research 55(4), 3502-3519. https://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018wr024106

Altenau, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Moller, D.; Pitcher, L.; Bates, P.; Durand, M.; Smith, L. (2019). Temporal variations in river water surface elevation and slope captured by AirSWOT. Remote Sensing of Environment 224, 304-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.02.002

Kim, R.Durand, M.; Li, D.; Baldo, E.; Margulis, S.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S. (2019). Estimating alpine snow depth by combining multifrequency passive radiance observations with ensemble snowpack modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 226, 1-15. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.03.016

Shastry A.; and Durand. M. (2019). Utilizing Flood Inundation Observations to Obtain Floodplain Topography in Data-Scarce Regions. Frontiers in Earth Science. 6:243. doi:10.3389/feart.2018.00243.

Tuozzolo, S.Langhorst, TFrasson, FPDM, Pavelsky, T, Durand, M, and Schobelock, JJ (2019). The impact of reach averaging Manning’s equation for an in-situ dataset of water surface elevation, width, and slope. Journal of Hydrology, 578, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.06.038

Wrzesien, ML, Pavelsky, T, Durand, MT, Dozier, J, and Lundquist, JD (2019). Characterizing biases in mountain snow accumulation from global datasets. Water Resources Research, 55, 9873-9891, doi:10.1029/2019WR02350

Lin, P, Pan, M., Beck, H., Yang, Y, Yamazaki, D, Frasson, R, David, C, Durand, M, Pavelsky, T, Allen, G, Gleason, C. and Wood, E (2019). Global Reconstruction of Naturalized River Flows at 2.94 Million Reaches. Water Resources Research, 55(8), 6499-6516, doi: 10.1029/2019WR025287.

Nickles, C, Beighley, E, Zhao, Y, Durand, M, David, C, and Lee, H (2019). How does the Unique Space‐Time Sampling of the SWOT Mission Influence River Discharge Series Characteristics? Geophysical Research Letters, 46(14), 8154-8161, doi: 10.1029/2019GL083886.

2018

Laborde, S., Phang, S. C., Ahmadou, M., Henry, N., Fernandez, A., Durand, M., . . . Moritz, M. (2018). Co‐producing research in the “Red Zone”: Adaptation to fieldwork constraints with a transdisciplinary approach. The Geographical Journal.

Domeneghetti, A., Schumann, G. J. P., Frasson, R. P. M., Wei, R., Pavelsky, T. M., Castellarin, A., . . . Durand, M. T. (2018). Characterizing water surface elevation under different flow conditions for the upcoming SWOT mission. Journal of Hydrology, 561, 848-861. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.04.046

Oubanas, H., Gejadze, I., Malaterre, P. O., Durand, M., Wei, R., Frasson, R. P. M., & Domeneghetti, A. (2018). Discharge Estimation in Ungauged Basins Through Variational Data Assimilation: The Potential of the SWOT Mission. Water Resources Research, 54(3), 2405-2423. doi:10.1002/2017WR021735

Kim, R. S., Durand, M., & Liu, D. (2018). Spectral analysis of airborne passive microwave measurements of alpine snowpack: Colorado, USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 205, 469-484. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.025

Gleason, C. J., Garambois, P. A., & Durand, M. T. (2018). Tracking river flows from space. Eos, 99(1), 32-36.

Dai, C., Durand, M., Howat, I. M., Altenau, E. H., & Pavelsky, T. M. (2018). Estimating River Surface Elevation From ArcticDEM. Geophysical Research Letters. doi:10.1002/2018GL077379

Wrzesien, M. L., Durand, M. T., Pavelsky, T. M., Howat, I. M., Margulis, S. A., & Huning, L. S. (2018). Corrigendum: Comparison of methods to estimate snow water equivalent at the mountain range scale: A case study of the California Sierra Nevada [J. Hydrometeor., 18, (2017) (1101-1119)] DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0246.1. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 19(1), 267-270. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-17-0175.1

Wrzesien, M. L., Durand, M. T., Pavelsky, T. M., Kapnick, S. B., Zhang, Y., Guo, J., & Shum, C. K. (2018). A New Estimate of North American Mountain Snow Accumulation From Regional Climate Model Simulations. Geophysical Research Letters. doi:10.1002/2017GL076664

2017

Frasson, R. P. de M.R. WeiM. Durand, J. T. Minear, A. Domenghetti, G. Schumann, B. Williams, E. Rodriguez, C. Picamilh, C. Lion, T. Pavelsky, and P. A. Garambois (2017), Automated River Reach Definition Strategies: Applications for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission, Water Resources Research, 42(5639), 395–23, doi:10.1002/2017WR020887.

Li, D.M. Durand, and S. Margulis 2017, Estimating snow water equivalent in a Sierra Nevada watershed via spaceborne radiance data assimilation, Water Resources Research53, doi:10.1002/2016WR01887 (link).

Li, D.Durand, M.; Margulis, S.A. (2017). Estimating snow water equivalent in a Sierra Nevada watershed via spaceborne radiance data assimilation. Water Resources Research, (1), 647-671. doi:10.1002/2016WR018878 (link).

Pan, J.M. DurandB. Vander Jagt, and D. Liu (2017), Application of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for snow water equivalent retrieval from passive microwave measurements, Remote Sensing of Environment, 192, 150-165 (link).

Wrzesien, M. L.M. T. Durand, T. M. Pavelsky, I. M. Howat, S. A. Margulis3, and L. S. Huning 2017, Comparison of Methods to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent at the Mountain Range Scale: A Case Study of the California Sierra Nevada, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0246.1 (link)

Cai, S.; Li, D.Durand, M.; Margulis, S.A. (2017). Examination of the impacts of vegetation on the correlation between snow water equivalent and passive microwave brightness temperature. Remote Sensing of Environment, 193, 244-256. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.006 (link).

Hagemann, M. W., C. J. Gleason, and M. T. Durand (2017), BAM: Bayesian AMHG-Manning Inference of Discharge Using Remotely Sensed Stream Width, Slope, and Height, Water Resources Research, 53(11), 9692–9707, doi:10.1002/2017WR021626.

Altenau, E. H., T. M. Pavelsky, D. Moller, C. Lion, L. H. Pitcher, G. H. Allen,
P. D. Bates, S. Calmant, M. Durand, L. C. Smith 2017, AirSWOT measurements of river water surface elevation and slope: Tanana River, AK, Geophysical Research Letters44, 181-189, doi:10.1002/2016GL071577 (link).

Jezek, K.C.; Johnson, J.T.; Tan, S.; Tsang, L., Aksoy, M, and M. Durand (2017). 500-2000-MHz Brightness Temperature Spectra of the Northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2017.2764381 (link)

2016

Laborde, S., A. Fernandez, S. Phang, I. M. Hamilton, N. Henry, H. Jung, A. Mahamt, M. Ahmadou, B. K. Labara, S. Kari, M. Durand, B. Mark, P. Scholte, N. Xiao, R. Ziebe, and M. Moritz 2016, Social-ecological feedbacks lead to unsustainable lock-in in an inland fishery, Global Environmental Change, 41, 13–25, doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.08.004 (link).

Margulis, S., G. Cortés, M. Girotto, L. S. Huning, D. Li, and M. Durand 2016 “Characterizing the Extreme 2015 Snowpack Deficit in the Sierra Nevada (USA) Range and the Implications for Drought Recovery”, Geophysical Research Letters43, doi:10.1002/2016GL068520 (link).

F. E. O’Loughlin, R. C. D. PaivaM. Durand, D. E. Alsdorf, and P. D. Bates 2016 “A multi-sensor approach towards a global vegetation corrected SRTM DEM product,” Remote Sensing of Environment182, 49-59, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.018 (link).

A. Fernandez, M. R. NajafiM. Durand, B. G. Mark, M. Moritz, H. C. Jung, J. C. Neal, A. Shastry, S. Laborde, S. C. Phang, I. M. Hamilton, N. Xiao 2016 “Testing the skill of numerical hydraulic modeling to simulate spatiotemporal flooding patterns in the Logone floodplain, Cameroon,” Journal of Hydrology539, 265-280 (link).

M. Durand, C. J. Gleason, P. A. Garambois, D. Bjerklie, L. C. Smith, H. Roux, E. Rodriguez, P. D. Bates, T. M. Pavelsky, J. Monnier, and seventeen others, 2016 “An intercomparison of remote sensing river discharge estimation algorithms from measurements of river height, width, and slope,” Water Resources Research, 52, doi:10.1002/2015WR018434 (link). 

Gordon, S. I., J. Cervenec, M. Durand 2016, “Introducing Teachers to Modeling Water in Urban Environments”, Journal of Computational Science Education, 7(1), 15-20 (link).

S. A. Margulis, G. Cortés, M. Girotto, M. Durand 2016 “A Landsat-era Sierra Nevada (USA) Snow Reanalysis (1985-2014),” Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17(4), 1203-1221, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0177.1 (link).

Y. Yoon, P. A. Garambois, R. C. D. Paiva, M. Durand, H. Roux, and E. Beighley 2016 “Improved error estimates of a discharge algorithm for remotely sensed river measurements: Test cases on Sacramento and Garonne Rivers,” Water Resources Research, 52, doi:10.1002/2015WR017319 (link).

M. Bonnema, S. Sikder, F. Hossain, M. Durand, C. Gleason, and D. Bjerklie 2016 “Benchmarking Wide Swath Altimetry Based River Discharge Estimation Algorithms for The Ganges River System,” Water Resources Research, 52, doi:10.1002/2015WR017296 (link).

J. PanM. Durand, M. Sandells, J. Lemmetyinen, E. Kim, J. Pulliainen, A. Kontu, C. Derksen 2016 “Theoretical differences and their effects on the comparison between two snow microwave emission models,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 54(4), doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2493505 (link).

M. Moritz, S. Laborde, S.C. Phang, M. Ahmadou, M. Durand, A. Fernandez, I.M. Hamilton, S. Kari, B. Mark, P. Scholte, N. Xiao, and R. Ziepen, 2016, “Studying the Logone Floodplain in Cameroon as a Coupled Human and Natural System,” African Journal of Aquatic Science, 41(1), doi: 10.2989/16085914.2016.1143799 (link).

2015

D. Li, M. Durand, S. Margulis, 2015, “Quantifying spatiotemporal variability of controls on microwave emission from snow covered mountain regions,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(9), 4478-4488 doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2440332 (link).

S. Tan, M. Aksoy, M. Brogioni, G. Macelloni, M. Durand, K. Jezek, T. L. Wang, L. Tsang, J. Johnson, M. Drinkwater, L. Brucker 2015, “Physical models of layered polar firn brightness from 0.5 GHz to 2.0 GHz,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(7), 3681-3691 (link).

S. A. Margulis, M. Girotto, G. Cortés, and M. Durand 2015, “An ensemble particle batch smoother approach to water equivalent reanalysis,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16(4), 1752-1772 (link).

D. LiM. Durand, S. A. Margulis 2015 “Large-scale high-resolution modeling of microwave radiance of a deep maritime alpine snowpack,” IEEE TGARS, 53(5), 2308-2322 (link).

B Vander Jagt, A. Lucieer, L. Wallace, D. Turner, and M. Durand 2015 “Snow Depth Retrieval with UAS Using Photogrammetric Techniques,” Geosciences, 5, 264-285, doi: 10.3390/geosciences5030264 (link).

B. Vander JagtM. Durand, S. A. Margulis, E. J. Kim, N. P. Molotch 2015 “On the characterization of vegetation transmissivity using LAI for application in passive microwave remote sensing of snowpack,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 156, 310-321 (link).

R. C. D. PaivaM. Durand, F. Hossain 2015 “Spatiotemporal interpolation of discharge across a river network in the context of the SWOT mission,” Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20067 (link).

M. Wilson, M. Durand, H. C. Jung, D. Alsdrof 2015 “Swath altimetry measurements of the mainstem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications,” Hydrological and Earth System Science, 19, 1943-1959 (link).

M. L. Wrzesien, T. M. Pavelsky, S. B. Kapnick, M. Durand, T. H. Painter 2014 “Evaluation of Snow Cover Fraction for Regional Climate Simulations in the Sierra Nevada,” International Journal of Climatology, 35(9), 2472-2484 (link).

K. C. Jezek, J. T. Johnson, M. R. Drinkwater, G. Macelloni, L. Tsang, M. Aksoy, M. Durand2015 “Radiometric Approach for Estimating Relative Changes in Intra-Glacier Average Temperature,” IEEE TGARS, 53(1), 134-143 (link).

2014

T. M. Pavelsky, M. Durand, K. M. Andreadis, R. E. Beighley, R. C. D. Paiva, G. H. Allen, and Z. F. Miller 2014 “Assessing the Potential Global Impact of SWOT River Observations,” Journal of Hydrology, 519, 1516-1525 (link).

M. Girotto, G. Cortés, S. A. Margulis, M. Durand 2014 “Examining Spatial and Temporal Variability in Snow Water Equivalent Using a 27-year Reanalysis: Kern River Watershed, Sierra Nevada,” Water Resources Research, 50, doi: 10.1002/2014WR015346 (link).

N. Molotch, M. Durand, B. Guan, S. A Margulis, R. E. Davis 2014 “Snow cover depletion curves and snow water equivalent reconstruction: Six decades of hydrologic remote sensing application,” AGU Monograph on Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Hydrology (link).

M. Durand, J. Neal, E. Rodríguez, K. M. Andreadis, L. C. Smith, and Y. Yoon 2014 “Estimating reach-averaged discharge for the River Severn from measurements of river water surface elevation and slope,” Journal of Hydrology, 511, 92-104, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.12.050 (link).

M. Girotto, S. A. Margulis, M. Durand 2014 “Probabilistic SWE reanalysis as a generalization of deterministic SWE reconstruction techniques,” Hydrological Processes, 28, 3875-3895 (link).

2013

B. Vander Jagt, M. Durand, S. A. Margulis, E. J. Kim, N. P. Molotch 2013 “The effect of spatial variability on the sensitivity of passive microwave measurements to snow water equivalent,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 136, 163-179 (link).

Y. YoonM. Durand, C. J. Merry, E. Rodríguez 2013 “Improving temporal coverage of the SWOT mission using spatiotemporal kriging,” IEEE JSTARS, 6(3), 1719-1729 (link).

M. K. Mersel, L. C. Smith, K. M. Andreadis, and M. Durand 2013 “Estimation of river depth from remotely sensed hydraulic relationships,” Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20176 (link).

D. Berisford, N. P. Molotch, M. Durand, T. H. Painter 2013 “Portable Spectral Profiler Probe for Rapid Snow Grain Size Stratigraphy,” Cold Regions Science and Technology, 85, 183-190 (link).

2012

D. LiM. Durand, and S. A. Margulis 2012: “Potential for hydrologic monitoring of deep mountain snowpack via passive microwave remote sensing in the Kern River basin, Sierra Nevada, USA,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 125, 34-48, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.06.027 (link).

Y. YoonM. Durand, C. Merry, E. A. Clark, K. M. Andreadis, and D. E. Alsdorf 2012: “Estimating river bathymetry from data assimilation of synthetic SWOT measurements,” Journal of Hydrology, 464-465, 363-375, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.07.028 (link).

M. Durand and D. Liu 2012: “The need for prior information in characterizing snow water equivalent from microwave brightness temperatures,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 126, 248-257 (link).

Huang, C., S. A. Margulis, M. Durand, K. N. Musselman 2012: “Assessment of snow grain-size model and stratigraphy representation impacts on snow radiance assimilation: Forward Modeling Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(11), 4551-4564, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2192480 (link).

2011

Beighley, R. E., R. L. Ray, Y. He, L. Schaller, M. Durand, K. M. Andreadis, D. Alsdorf, C. K. Shum 2011: “Comparing satellite derived precipitation datasets using the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Congo River Basin,” Hydrological Processes, doi: 10.1002/hyp.8045 (link).

Toure, A. M., K. Goïta, A. Royer, E. J. Kim, M. Durand, S. A. Margulis, H. Lu 2011: “A case study of using a multi-layered thermo-dynamical snow model for radiance assimilation,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 49(8), 2828-2837, 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2118761 (link).

M. Durand, E. J. Kim, S. A. Margulis, N. P. Molotch 2011: “A first-order characterization of errors from neglecting stratigraphy in forward and inverse passive microwave modeling of snow,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 8(4), 730-734 (link).

Biancamaria, S., M. Durand, K. Andreadis, P. D. Bates, A. Boone, N. M. Mognard, E. Rodríguez, D. E. Alsdorf, D. Lettenmaier, E. Clark 2011: “Assimilation of virtual wide swath altimetry to improve Arctic river modeling,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 373-381 (link).

2010

Lee, H., M. Durand, H. C. Jung, D. E. Alsdorf, C. K. Shum, and Y. Sheng 2010: “Characterization of surface water storage changes in Arctic lakes by SWOT measurements,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31(14), 3931-3953 (link). 

Durand, M., E. Rodriguez, D. E. Alsdorf, and M. Trigg 2010: “Estimating river depth from remote sensing swath interferometry measurements of river height, slope, and width,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 3(1), 20-31 (link).

Durand, M., L. L. Fu, D. P. Lettenmaier, and D. Alsdorf, E. Rodríguez, D. Esteban-Fernandez 2010: “The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission: Observing terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscale eddies,” Proceedings of the IEEE, 98 (5), 766-779 (link).

Biancamaria, S., K. M. Andreadis, M. Durand, E. A. Clark, E. Rodriguez, N. M. Mognard, D. E. Alsdorf, D. P. Lettenmaier, and Y. Oudin 2010: “Preliminary characterization of SWOT hydrology error budget and global capabilities,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 3(1), 6-19 (link).

Jung, H. C., J. Hamski, M. Durand, D. Alsdorf, F. Hossain, H. Lee, A. K. M. A. Hossain, A. S. Khan, A. K. M. Z. Hoque 2010: “Characterization of complex fluvial systems via remote sensing of spatial and temporal water level variations,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35(3), 294-304, doi:10.1002/esp.1914 (link).

2009

Durand, M., E. J. Kim, and S. A. Margulis 2009: “Radiance assimilation shows promise for snowpack characterization,” Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L02503, doi:10.1029/2008GL035214. (link).

2008

Durand, M., D. Alsdorf, K. Andreadis, D. Lettenmaier, D. Moller, and M. Wilson 2008: “Estimation of bathymetric depth and slope from data assimilation of swath altimetry into a hydrodynamic model,” Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L20401, doi:10.1029/2008GL034150 (link).

Durand, M., N. P. Molotch, and S. A. Margulis 2008: “A Bayesian approach to snow water equivalent reconstruction,” Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 113, D20117, doi:10.1029/2008JD009894 (link).

Durand, M., E. J. Kim, and S. A. Margulis 2008: “Quantifying uncertainty in modeling snow microwave radiance for a mountain snowpack at the point-scale, including stratigraphic effects,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 46 (6), 1753 – 1767 (link).

Durand, M., N. P. Molotch, and S. A. Margulis 2008: “Merging complementary remote sensing datasets in the context of snow water equivalent reconstruction,” Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 1212 – 1225, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.08.010 (link).

Durand, M., and S. A. Margulis 2008: “Effects of uncertainty magnitude and accuracy on assimilation of multi-scale measurements for snowpack characterization,” Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 113, D02105, doi:10.1029/2007JD008662 (link).

2006 & 2007

Durand, M., and S. A. Margulis 2007: “Correcting first-order errors in snow water equivalent estimates using a multi-frequency, multi-scale radiometric data assimilation scheme,” Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 112, D13121, doi:10.1029/2006JD008067 (link).

Durand, M., and S. A. Margulis 2006: “Feasibility test of multifrequency radiometric data assimilation to estimate snow water equivalent,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7(3), 443–457 (link).