Ohio State nav bar

Earth Systems Modeling Publications

Earth Systems Modeling Publications


In Press

Bova, S. Y. Rosenthal, Z. Liu, M. Yan, A. J. Broccoli, S. P. Godad and C. Zeng, 2021:Reply to MA: Concerns on roles ofpolar sea-ice variability. Nature, in press

Du X., J. M. Russell, Z. Liu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, Y. Gao, C. Zhu, D. W. Oppo, M. Mohtadi, Y. Yan, V. V. Galy and C. He, 2021: Deglacial trends in Indo-Pacific Warm Pool hydroclimate in an isotope‐enabled Earth system model andimplications for isotope-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Quat. Sci. Res., in press.

He C., Z. Liu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, E.C. Brady, C. Zhu, R. Tomas, S. Gu, J. Han and Y. Jin, 2021: South China hydroclimate variability heavily contributed by autumn rainfall during the last deglaciation. Nature Comm., in press.


He C., Z. Liu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, E. C. Brady, C. Zhu, R. Thomas, P. U. Clark, J. Zhu, A. Jahn,

S. Gu, J. Zhang, J. Nusbaumer, D. Noone, H. Cheng, Y. Wang, M. Yan and Y. Bao, 2021: The hydroclimate footprint accompanying pan-Asian monsoon water isotope evolution during the last deglaciation. Sci. Adv.10.1126/sciadv.abe2611

Bova S., Y. Rosenthal, Z. Liu, S. Godal and M. Yan, 2021: Seasonal origin for the Holocene and last interglacial thermal maximum. Nature 589, 548-553, 10.1038/s41586-020-03155-x

He, C., Z. Liu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, E.C. Brady, C. Zhu, R. Tomas, C. Buizert and J. Severinghaus, 2021: Abrupt Heinrich Stadial 1 Cooling Missing in Greenland Oxygen Isotopes. Sci. Adv., DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abh1007

Cheng J., H. Wu, Z. Liu, P. Gu, J. Wang, C. Zhao, Q. Li, H. Chen, H. Lu, H. Hu, Y. Gao, M. Yu and Y. Song, 2020:Vegetation feedback leads to delayed eco-environmental response to East Asian Summer Monsoon rainfall during Holocene. Nature Comm. 10.1038/s41467-021- 22087-2

Buizert C., T.J. Fudge, W. H. G. Roberts, E. J. Steig, S. Sherriff-Tadano, C. Ritz, E. Lefebvre, J. Edwards, K. Kawamura, I. Oyabu, H. Motoyama, E. C. Kahle, T. R. Jones, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Obase, C. Martin, H. Corr, J. P. Severinghaus, R. Beaudette, J. A. Epifanio, E. J. Brook, K. Martin, J. Chappellaz, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, T. A. Sowers, R. Alley, J. Ahn, M.Sigl, M. Severi, N. W. Dunbar, A. Svensson, J. Fegyveresi, C. He, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, B. Otto-Bliesner, V. Y. Lipenkov, T. Kameda, M.Kageyama and J. Schwander: 2021: Antarctic-wide surface temperature and elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum.   Science,   372,   1097- 1101. 10.1126/science.abd2897

Jin Y. and Z. Liu, 2021: On the formation mechanism of seasonal persistence barrier. J. Clim. 34, 479-494.

Jin Y. and Z. Liu, 2021: A theory of Spring Persistence Barrier on ENSO. Part II: Persistence barriers in SST and ocean heatcontent. J. Clim. 34, 5555–5564, 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0820.1

Wen, Q., C. Zhu, Z. Han, H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2021: Can the topography of Tibetan Plateau affect the Antarctic BottomWater. Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1029/2021GL092448.

Wen Q., Z. Han, H. Yang, J. Cheng, Z. Liu and J. Liu, 2021: Influence of Tibetan Plateau on the North American SummerMonsoon Precipitation. Clim. Dyn., 10.1007/s00382-021-05857-y

Zhang H., X. Zhang, Y. Cai, A. Sinha, C. Spötl, J. Baker, G. Kathayat, Y. Tian, J. Lu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Jia, W. Du, Y. Ning, Z. An, R. L. Edwards, Z. Liu and H. Cheng, 2021: A data-model comparison pinpoints Holocene spatiotemporal pattern of East Asian summer monsoon. Quat. Sci. Rev. 261, 10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106911

Wang, P., Y. Jin and Z. Liu, 2021: Diurnal predictability barrier for weather forecast. Mon. Wea. Rev. 149, 1715-1723

Liu Z., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, P. U. Clark, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, J. and M. Russell, 2021: SynTRACE- 21: Synthesis of Transient Climate Evolution of the last 21,000 years. PAGES newsletter, 10.22498/pages.29.1.13.

Gu, S., Z. Liu, D. W. Oppo, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, A. Jahn, J. Zhang, K. Lindsay and L. Wu: 2021: Remineralization dominating the δ13C decrease in the mid-depth Atlantic during the last deglaciation. Earth & Planetary Sci. Lett. 571,10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117106

Li, L., Z. Liu, C. Zhu, C. He and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2021: Shallowing glacial Antarctic Intermediate water by changes in sea ice and hydrological cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1029/2021GL094317

Zhang, Z., G. Li, Y. Cai, Z. Liu and Z. An, 2021: Variation of summer precipitation δ18O on the Chinese Loess Plateausince the last interglacial. J. Quaternary Science, 10.1002/jqs.3358

Liu, W., Z. Liu and S. Li, 2021:The driving mechanisms on Southern Ocean upwelling change during the last deglaciation. Geosciences, 11, 266-; 10.3390/geosciences11070266.

Zhu, C. Z. Liu, S. Zhang and L. Wu, 2021: Global oceanic overturning circulation forced by the competition between greenhouse gases and continental ice sheets during last deglacial. J. Clim., 10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0125.1


Zhu, C. and Z. Liu, 2020: Weakening Atlantic Overturning Circulation causes South Atlantic salinity pileup. Nat. Clm.Change, 10.1038/s41558-020-0897-7

Jian Z., Y. Wang, H. Dang, D. W. Lea, Z. Liu, H. Jin and Y. Yin, 2020: Half-precessional cycle of thermocline temperature in the western equatorial Pacific and its bi-hemispheric dynamics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA,10.1073/pnas.1915510117

Chen, K., L. Ning, Z. Liu, J. Liu, M. Yan, W. Sun et al., 2020: One drought and one volcanic eruption influenced thehistory of China: The late Ming Dynasty mega‐drought. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088124. 10.1029/2020GL088124 (highlighted by Nature: https:/www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02467-2)

Chen, K., L. Ning, Z. Liu, J. Liu, M. Yan, W. Sun, B. Liu, 2020: The Influences of tropical volcanic eruptions with different magnitudes on the persistent droughts over the eastern China. Atmosphere 11, 210-, 10.3390/atmos11020210

Han, J., L. Back, Z. Liu and X. Wen, 2020: How far poleward can the seasonal precipitation maxima over land extend under high obliquity? Clim. Dyn., 10.1007/s00382-020-05225-2

Jin, Y., Z. Lu, and Z. Liu, 2020: Controls of Spring Persistence Barrier strength in different ENSO regimes and implicationsfor Twenty-First-Century change. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, 10.1029/2020GL088010

Zhang S., Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, G. Han, C. Liu, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, M. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wu and F. Lu, 2020: Coupled data assimilation and parameter estimation in coupled ocean- atmosphere models: a review. Clim. Dyn. 54, 5127–5144

Ning, L., K. Chen, J. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yan, W. Sun, C. Jin and Z. Shi, 2020: How do volcanic eruptions influence decadalmegadroughts over eastern China? J. Clim., 33, 8195-8207

Joos, F., R. Spalni, B. Stocker, S. Lienert, J. Muller, H. Fischer, J. Schmitt, I. Prentice, B. Otto- Bliesner and Z. Liu, 2020:N2O changes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the preindustrial - part II: terrestrial N2O emissions and carbon-nitrogen cycle interactions. Biogeosciences 17, 3511-3543.

Gao Y., Z. Liu and Z. Lu 2020: Dynamic Effect of Ice Sheet Topography on East Asian Summer Monsoon during the LastDeglaciation. J. Clim. 33, 6929-6944

Guan J., Z. Liu and G.S. Chen, 2020: Moisture Source tagging confirming the Polar amplification effect in amplifying the temperature-δ18O temporal slope since the LGM. Atmosphere, doi:10.3390/atmos11060610

Yan, M., Z. Liu, L. Ning and J. Liu, 2020: Holocene EASM-EAWM relationship across different timescales in CCSM3.Geophys. Res. Lett. 47,10.1029/2020GL088451

Zhang, H., Z. Liu, E. Constantinescu and R. Jacob, 2020: Stability Analysis of Interface Conditions for Ocean-AtmosphereCoupling. J. Scientific Computing 84, 1-25.

Tabor, C., B. Otto_Bliesner and Z. Liu, 2020: Speleothems of South American and Asian monsoons influenced by a Green Sahara. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, 10.1029/2020GL089695

Gu, S., Z. Liu, D. W Oppo, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, A. Jahn; J. Zhang and L. Wu, 2020: Assessing the potential capability of reconstructing glacial Atlantic water masses and AMOC using multiple proxies in CESM. Earth & Planetary Sci. Lett. 541, 10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116294

Wu, S. and Z. Liu, 2020: Decadal variability in North Pacific and North Atlantic under global warming: the weakening response and its mechanism. J. Clim. 33, 9181-9193.

Sun, J., Z. Liu, F. Lu, W. Zhang, Y. Zhao and S. Zhang, 2020: Quantitatively isolating extratropical atmospheric impact on the tropical Pacific interannual variability in coupled climate model. IEEE Access, 0.1109/ACCESS.2020.3021801

Jin Y. and Z. Liu, 2020: A theory of Spring Persistence Barrier on ENSO. Part I: The role of ENSO period.. J. Clim. 33, 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0540.1

Zhu, J., C. J. Poulsen, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, E. Brady and D. Noone, 2020: Simulation of early Eocene water isotopes using an Earth system model and its implication for past climate reconstruction. Earth & Planetary Sci. Lett.,10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116164

He, C., Z. Liu, J. Zhu, J. Zhang, S. Gu, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, B. Esther, C. Zhu, Y. Jin and J. Sun, 2020: North Atlantic subsurface temperature response controlled by effective freshwater input in "Heinrich" events. Earth & Planetary Sci.Lett., 10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116247.

Gu, S., Z. Liu, L. Wu, 2020: Timescale dependence of the meridional coherence of Atlantic Meridional OverturningCirculation. J. Geophys. Res.-Ocn., 10.1029/2019JC015838.

Sun, J., Z. Liu, F. Lu, W. Zhang and S. Zhang, 2020: Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading AveragedCoupled Covariance (LACC). Part III: Real World Data Assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0304.1

Hu, Y., Y. Xia, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Lu and T. Wang, 2020: Distorted Pacific-North American Teleconnection at the Last Glacial Maximum. Clim. Past 16, 199–209, 10.5194/cp-16-199- 2020.

Aguiar, W., L. F. Prado, I. Wainer, Z. Liu, A. Montenegro, K. J. Meissner and M. M. Mata, 2020: Freshwater control on early-Holocene South America Monsoon. Quat. Sci. Rev., 10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.10649

Cheng, J., Y. Ma, H. Wu, H. Long and Z. Liu, 2020: Migration of Afro-Asian monsoon fringe since Last GlacialMaximum. Frontiers in Earth Science, 10.3389/feart.2020.00322

Tabor, C., B. Otto_Bliesner and Z. Liu, 2020: Speleothems of South American and Asian monsoons influenced by a GreenSahara. Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1029/2020GL089695

Zhao, C., E. J. Rohling, Z. Liu, X. Yang, E. Zhang, J. Cheng, Z.H. Liu, Z. An, X. Yang, X. Feng,

X. Sun, C. Zhang, T. Yan, H. Long, H. Yan, Z. Yu, W. Liu, S-Y Yu and J Shen: 2020: Possible obliquity-forced warmth in southern Asia during the last glacial stage. Science Bulletin, 10.1016/j.scib.2020.11.016


He, C., Z. Liu and A. Hu, 2019: The transient response of atmospheric and oceanic heat transports to anthropogenic warming. Nat. Clim. Change 9, 222-226.

Liu, Z., Y. Jin and X. Rong, 2019: A theory for seasonal predictability barrier: threshold, timing and intensity. J. Clim. 32,423-443.

Jin, Y., Z. Liu, X. Rong, 2019: General Seasonal Phase-locking of Variance and Persistence: Application to Tropical Pacific,North Pacific and Global Ocean. Clim. Dyn. 53, 2825-2842.

Gu, S., Z. Liu, A. Jahn, J. Rampfer, J. Zhang and F. Joos, 2019: Modeling neodymium isotopes in the ocean component ofthe community earth system model (CESM1) J. Adv. Modeling Earth Systems 11, 624-640.

Gu, S., Z. Liu, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, A. Jahn, J. Zhang, K. Lindsay, L. Wu, 2019: Assessing the ability of zonal 𝛅𝛅18O contrast inbenthic foraminifera to reconstruct deglacial evolution of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation,Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 34, 800-812.

Umling N.E., D.W. Oppo, P. Chen, J. Yu, Z. Liu, M. Yan, G. Gebbie, K. R. Pietro, Z.D. Jin, K.B. Costa, F.A.L. Toledo, D.C., Lund and M. Lacerra, 2019: Atlantic circulation and ice sheet influences on upper South Atlantic temperatures duringthe last deglaciation, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 34, 990-1005.

Fang, C., F. Zheng, Z. Liu and J. Zhu, 2019: Decadal modulation of ENSO Spring Persistence Barrier by thermal dampingprocesses in the observation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 46, 6892-6899.

Lu, Z. and Z. Liu, 2019: Orbital modulation of ENSO seasonal phase locking. Clim. Dyn. 52, 4329-4350.

Lu, Z., Z. Liu, G. Chen and J. Guan, 2019: Prominent precession-band variance in ENSO intensity over the last300,000 years. Geophys. Res. Lett. 46, 9786–9795.

Feng, J., J. Li, F-F Jin, Z. Liu and S. Zhao, 2019: Effect of El Nino on the response ratio of Hadley circulation todifferent SST meridional structures. Clim. Dyn. 53, 3877-3891.

Zhao, Y., Z. Liu, F. Zheng and Y. Jin, 2019: EnKF parameter optimization for real world ENSO forecast in an intermediatecoupled model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 147, 1429-1445.

Stevenson, S., B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Nusbaumer, C. Tabor, R. Tomas, D. Noone and Z. Liu, 2019: Volcanic eruption signatures in the isotope-enabled last millennium ensemble. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 34, 1534-1552.

Brady, E., Stevenson, S., Bailey, D., Liu, Z., Noone, D., Nusbaumer, J., et al, 2019: The connected isotopic water cycle in theCommunity Earth System Model version 1. J. Adv. Modeling Earth Systems 11, 2547-2566.

Yu X., S., Zhang, J. Li, L. Lu, Z. Liu, M. Li, H. Yu, G. H., X. Lin, L. Wu and P. Chang, 2019: A multiscale EnOI-like high-efficiency filter for coupled model data assimilation. J. Adv. Modeling Earth Systems 11, 45-63.

Wen N., Z. Liu, Y. Liu and L. Li, 2019: Response and mechanism of East Asian summer precipitation in the developing summer of ENSO: Direct impact of ENSO. Clim. Dyn. 52, 6799-6815.

Wan L., Z. Liu, J. Liu, W. Sun and B. Liu, 2019: On the linearity of the temperature response in Holocene: the spatial and temporal dependence. Clim. Past 15, 1411-1425.

Zhao, Y., X. Deng, S. Zhang, Z. Liu and C. Liu, 2019: Sensitivity determined simultaneous estimation for multiple parameters in coupled models: Part I: Based on single model component sensitivity. Clim. Dyn. 53, 5349-5373.

Cheng, J., W. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Lu and H. Wu, 2019: Varying sensitivity of East Asia summer monsoon circulation totemperature change since Last Glacial Maximum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 46, 9103-9109.

Shi, Y., Z. Jiang, Z. Liu and L. Li, 2019: A Lagrangian analysis of water vapor sources and pathways for precipitations in East China in different stages of the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Clim. 32, 977-992.

Jin, Y., Z., Liu, Z. Lu and C. He, 2019: Seasonal cycle of background in the tropical Pacific as a cause of ENSO spring persistence barrier. Geophys. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085205.


Liu, Z., C. He and F. Lu, 2018: Local and remote forcing on atmospheric and oceanic heat transports: compensation vs collaboration. J. Clim. 31, 6445-6460.

Liu, Z. and E. Di Lorenzo, 2018: Mechanism and predictability of Pacific Decadal OscillationCurrent Climate Change Reports 4, 128-144.

Lu, F. and Z. Liu, 2018: Assessing extratropical influence on the observed El Niño–Southern Oscillation events usingregional coupled data assimilation. J. Clim. 31, 8961-8969.

Lu, Z., Z. Liu, J. Zhu and K. Cobb, 2018: A review of paleo ENSO. Atmosphere 9, 130.doi:10.3390/atmos9040130.

Lu, Z. and Z. Liu, 2018: Examining ENSO in the Holocene: implications and challenges. National Science Review 5, 807-809.

Clemens, S., A. Holbourn, Y. Kubota, K. Lee, Z. Liu, G. Chen, A. Nelson and B. Fox-Kemper, 2018: Precession-band variance missing from East Asian monsoon runoff. Nat. Comm. 9, 3364.

Zhu C., Z. Liu and S. Gu, 2018: Model bias for South Atlantic Antarctic Intermediate Water in CMIP5. Clim. Dyn. 50, 3613-3624.

Tabor, C., B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Nusbaumer, J. Zhu, M. Erb, T. Wong, D. Noone and Z. Liu, 2018: Interpretingprecession driven δ18O variability in the South Asian monsoon region. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 123, 5927-5946.

Liu, Y.G., M. Zhang, Z. Liu, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, Y. Peng and J. Zhu, 2018: A possible role of dust in resolving the Holocene temperature conundrum. Scientific Reports 8, 4434.

Li, S., S. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Lu, J. Zhu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, M. Zhao, G. Vecchi, R. Zhang and X. Lin, 2018: Estimating convective parameters in the GFDL CM2.1 model using ensemble data assimilation. J. Adv. Modeling Earth Systems 10, 989-1010.

Wu, S., Z. Liu, J. Cheng and C. Li, 2018: Response of North Pacific and North Atlantic decadal variability to weak globalwarming. Adv. Climate Change Research 9, 95-101

Jin Y., X. Rong and Z. Liu, 2018: Potential predictability and forecast skill in ensemble climate forecast: a skill-persistencerule. Clim. Dyn. 51, 2725-2742.

Thibodeau B., C. Not, J. Zhu, A. Schmittner, D. Noone, C. Tabor, J. Zhang and Z. Liu, 2018: Last century warming over Canadian Atlantic shelves linked to weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45,12376-12385.


Liu, W., S.-P Xie, Z. Liu and J. Zhu, 2017: Overlooked possibility of AMOC collapse in warming climate. Science Advances3, e1601666.

Zhang, J., Z. Liu, E. C. Brady, A. Jahn, K. Lindsay, D. W. Oppo, P. U. Clark, S. A. Marcott, 2017: Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep Atlantic water masses during the last deglaciation, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 11075-11080.

Pausata F., Q. Zhang, F. Muschitiello, Z. Lu, L. Chafik, E. Niedermeyer, K. Cobb, J. Stager and Z. Liu, 2017: Greening of the Sahara suppressed ENSO variability in the mid- Holocene. Nat. Comm. 8, 16020.

Wang, P., B. Wang, H. Cheng, J. Fasullo, Z. Guo, T. Kiefer and Z. Liu, 2017: The global monsoon across time scales: mechanisms and outstanding issues. Earth Sci. Rev. 174, 84- 121.

Zhu J., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner,E. Brady, D. Noone, J. Zhang, R. Tomas, A. Jahn, J. Nusbaumer and T. Wong, 2017: Reduced ENSO variability at the LGM revealed by an isotope-enabled Earth System Model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 6984-6992.

Zhu, J., Z. Liu, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, S. Marcott, Jiaxu Zhang, Xianfeng Wang, Jesse Nusbaumer, Tony E. Wong,Alexandra Jahn, and David Noone, 2017: Investigating the direct meltwater effect in terrestrial oxygen isotope paleoclimate records using an isotope-enabled Earth system model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 12501-12510.

Lu, F., Z, Liu, S. Zhang and R. Jacob, 2017: Assessing extratropical impact on tropical bias in climate model using regional coupled data assimilation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 3384-3392.

Jiang, Z., S. Jiang, Y. Shi, Z. Liu, W. Li, and L. Li, 2017: Impact of moisture source variation on decadal-scale changesof precipitation in North China from 1951 to 2010, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 122, 600–613.

Gu, S., Z. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Rempfer, F. Joos, E. Brady and D. Oppo, 2017: Coherent dynamic response of Antarctic Intermediate Water and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during deglaciation: reconciling contrasting neodymium isotope reconstructions from the tropical Atlantic. Paleoceagnography 32, 1036-1053.

Gu, S. and Z. Liu, 2017: 231Pa and 230Th in the ocean model of Community Earth System Model (CESM1.3). Geosci.Model Development 10, 4723-4742.

Rong, X., Z. Liu, S. Duan, 2017: Seasonal dependence of the North Pacific and North Atlantic SST predictability andforecast skill. Adv. Earth Sci. 32, 382-395

Zhao Y., X. Deng, S. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Liu, G. Vecchi, G. Han, and X. Wu, 2017: Impact of an observational window on coupled data assimilation: simulation with a simple climate model. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 24, 681–694

Liu, H., Z. Liu and F. Lu, 2017: A systematic comparison of particle filter and EnKF in assimilating time-averagedobservations. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 122, 13155-13173.

Thomas, E., S. Clemens, W. Prell, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Liu and S. Lomis, 2017: Mid-latitude land surface temperature impacts the timing and structure of glacial cycles. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 984-992.

Liu, C., S. Zhang, S. Li and Z. Liu, 2017: Impact of the time scale of model sensitivity response on coupled modelparameter estimation. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1346–1357


Cheng, J., Z. Liu, S. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Dong, P. Liu and H. Li, 2016: Reduced interdecadal variability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation under global warming. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3175-3178.

Wen X., Z. Liu, S. Wang, J. Cheng and Jiang Zhu, 2016: Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years. Nat. Comm. 7, 11999, DOI:10.1038/ncomms11999

Guan, J. Z. Liu, X. Wen, E. Brady, D. Noone, J. Zhu and J. Han, 2016: Understanding temporal slope of temperature-water isotope relation in isoCAM3: the slope equation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 121, 10342-10354.

Liu, Z., H. Yang, C. He and Y. Zhao, 2016: A theory for Bjerknes compensation: the role of climate feedback. J. Clim. 29, 191-208.

Yang, H., Zhao, Y. and Z. Liu, 2016: Understanding Bjerknes compensation in atmosphere and ocean heat transports usinga coupled box model. J. Clim. 29, 2145-2160.

Zhao Y., H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2016: Bjerknes Compensation for climate variability: assessment and time-scale dependency. J. Clim. 29, 5501-5512.

Feng J., J. Li, F-F Jin, N. Xing, Y. Guo and Z. Liu, 2016: Contrasting responses of the Hadley circulation to equatorially asymmetric and symmetric meridional sea surface temperature structures. J. Clim. 29, 8949-8963.

Wu, X. R., S. Q. Zhang, and Z. Y. Liu, 2016: Implementation of a one-dimensional enthalpy sea- ice model in a simple pycnocline prediction model for sea-ice data assimilation studies. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 33, 193–207.

Yan L., Z. Liu, G. Chen, J. E. Kutzbach and X. Liu, 2016: Mechanism of elevation-dependent warming over TibetanPlateau in quadrupled CO2 experiments. Clim. Change 135, 509-519.

Li, S., S. Zhang, Z. Liu, X. Yang, A. Rosati, J-C Golaz and M. Zhao, 2016: The role of large-scale feedbacks in cumulus convection parameter estimation. J. Clim. 29, 4099-4119.

Fan L., S-I Shin, Z. Liu and Q. Liu, 2016: Two-sided impacts of Indo-Pacific warm pool SST on Australia precipitation changes. Int. J. Clim. 35, 312-313

Fan L., S-I Shin, Z. Liu and Q. Liu, 2016: Sensitivity of Asian summer monsoon precipitation to tropical sea surfacetemperature anomalies. Clim. Dyn. 47, 2301-2514.

Liu H., F. Lu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu Yun, and S. Zhang, 2016: Assimilating atmosphere reanalysis in coupled data assimilation.J. Meteor. Res. 30, 572-583.

Lu, F., Z. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Zhang and R. Jacob, 2016: Understanding extratropical atmospheric control of ENSO using acoupled data assimilation approach. Clim. Dyn. 48, 3139-3160.

Thomas, E., S. Clemens, Y. Sun, W. Prell, L. Gao, G. Chen and Z. Liu, 2016: Heterodynes dominate East Asian monsoonvariability, reflecting interaction of multiple climate factors. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 455, 196-206.

Jiang, Z., S. Jiang, Y. Shi, Z. Liu, W. Li and L. Li, 2016: Impact of moisture source variation on decadal changes of precipitation in North China from 1951-2009. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 122, 600-613.

Wen X., Z. Liu, Z. Chen, E. Brady, D. Noone, Q. Zhu and J. Guan, 2016: Modeling precipitation δ18O variability in East Asia since the Last Glacial Maximum: temperature and amount effects across different time scales. Clim. Past 12, 2077-2085.


Lu F., Z. Liu, S. Zhang and Y. Liu, 2015: Coupled data assimilation using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance: I. Asimple model study. Mon. Wea. Rev. 143, 3823–3837.

Lu F., Z. Liu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu and R. Jacob, 2015: Coupled data assimilation using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance: II. A CGCM study. Mon. Wea. Rev. 143, 4645–4659.

Sun Y., J. Kutzbach, Z. An, S. Clemens, Z. Liu, W. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Shi, W. Zheng, L. Liang, Y. Yan and Y Li, 2015: Astronomical and glacial forcing of East Asian summer monsoon variability. Quat. Sci. Rev. 115, 132-142

Lu, Z., Z. Liu and J. Zhu, 2015: Abrupt intensification of ENSO forced by deglacial ice sheet retreat in CCSM3. Clim. Dyn. 46, 1877-1891.

Jahn, A., K. Lyndsay, X. Giraud, N. Gruber, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, and E. C. Brady, 2015: Carbon isotopes in theocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Geoscientific Model Development 8, 2419-2434.

Han G., X. Wu, S. Zhang, Z. Liu, I. M. Navon, W. Li, 2015: A study of 4D-Var and EnKF coupling parameter-estimation witha simple coupled system. Adv. in Meteorology, doi:10.1155/2015/530764.

Wen N., Z. Liu and Y. Liu, 2015: Direct impact of El Nino on East Asian summer precipitation in the observation. Clim. Dyn.44, 2979-2987.

Zhu, L., Z. Jiang and Z. Liu, 2015: The impact of spring vegetation on the predictability of summer rainfall in the Yangtze region. Acta Meteorologica Sinica 73, 895-909.

Nace, T., G. Dwyer, C. Silva, C. Rigsby, D. Hollander, S. Burns, B. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, J. Zhu and P. Baker, 2015: Therole of North Brazil Current transport in the paleoclimate of Brazilian Nordeste margin and paleoceanography of thewestern tropical Atlantic during the late Quaternary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 415, 3-13.

Liu, W., J. Lu, L. R. Leung, S. Xie, Z. Liu and J. Zhu, 2015: The de-correlation between westerly winds and westerly-wind-stress over the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum. Clim. Dyn. 45, 3157-3168.

Zhang X., S. Zhang, Z. Liu, X. Wu and G. Han, 2015: Parameter optimization in an intermediate coupled climate modelwith biased physics. J. Clim. 28, 1227-1247.

Yu Y., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, F. Wang, F. Alkolibi, E. Fadda and F. Bakhrjy, 2015: Climatic controls on the interannual todecadal variability in Saudi Arabian dusk activity: towards the development of a seasonal dust prediction model. J.Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 120, 1739-1758.

Wu, X. R., G. Han, S. Zhang and Z. Liu, 2015: A study of the impact of parameter optimization on ENSO predictability with an intermediate coupled model. Clim. Dyn. 46, 711-727.

Yang, H., Y. Zhao, Z. Liu, Q. Li, F. He and Q. Zhang, 2015: Heat transport compensation in in atmosphere and ocean in thepast 21,000 years. Scientific Reports 5, 16661, doi:10.1038/srep16661

Liu, W., Z. Liu, J. Cheng and H. Hu, 2015: On the stability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the lastdeglaciation. Clim. Dyn. 44, 1257-1275.


Liu Z., Z. Lu, X. Wen, B. Otto-Bliesner, A. Timmermann, K. Cobb, 2014: The evolution and forcing mechanism of ElNino in the last 21,000 years. Nature 515, 550-553

Liu, Z., J. Zhu, Y. Rothethal, X. Zhang, B. Otto-Blienser, A. Timmermann, R. Smith, G. Lohmann,

W. Zheng and O. Timm, 2014: The Holocene temperature conundrum. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E3501-3505.

Otto-Bliesner, B., J. Russel, P. Clark, Z. Liu, J. Overpeck, B. Koneck, P. deMenocal, S. Nicholson,

F. He and Z. Lu, 2014: Coherent changes of southeastern equatorial and northern African rainfall during the lastdeglaciation. Science 346, 1223-1227.

Liu, Z., X. Wen, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, G. Yu, H. Lu, H. Cheng, Y. Wang, W. Zheng, Y. Ding, L. Edwards, J. Cheng,W. Liu and H. Yang, 2014: Chinese cave records and East Asian Summer Monsoon. Quat. Sci. Rev. 83, 115–128.

Buizerti C., V. Gkinis, J. Severinghaus, F. He, B. Lecavalier, P. Kindler, M. Leuenberger, A. Carlson, B. Vinther, V. Masson-Delmotte, J. White, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner and E. Brook, 2014: Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the Last Deglaciation. Science 345, 1177-1180.

Jomelli, V., V. Favier, R. Braucher, M. Vuille, P-H. Blard, M. Khodri, C. Colose, D. Brunstein, D. Bourlès, L. Leanni, V. Rinterknecht, D. Grancher, B. Francou, F. He, J.L. Ceballos, H. Francesca, Z. Liu and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2014: A major advance of tropical Andean glaciers during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Nature 513, 224-228.

Shakun, J., P. Clark, F. He, Z. Liu and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2014: Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the lastdeglaciation. Nat. Comm. 6, 8059.

Chen G., Z. Liu and J. Kutzbach, 2014: Reexamining the barrier effect of Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian Monsoon. Clim. Past 10, 1269-1275.

Gibbons, F., D. Oppo, M. Mohtadi, Y. Rosenthal, K. Linsley, J. Cheng and Z. Liu and B. Linsley, 2014: Degiacial d18O of the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 387, 240-251.

Elizabeth T., S. Clemens, W. Prell, T. Herbert, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, J. Damsté, Y. Sun and X. Wen, 2014: Temperature and leaf wax d2H clarify the importance of seasonality in interpreting Asian hydroclimate proxies. Geology 42, 1075-1078

Liu, W. and Z. Liu, 2014: A note on the stability indicator of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Clim. 27,970-975.

Liu, W., Z. Liu and E. Brady, 2014: Why is AMOC mono-stable in coupled general circulation models? J. Clim. 27, 2427-2443.

Liu W. and Z. Liu, 2014: Assessing the stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation of the past, present andfuture. J. Meteor. Res. 5, 803-819.

Zhu J., Z. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Liu and E. Brady, 2014: AMOC response to global warming: dependence on the backgroundclimate and response timescale. Clim. Dyn. 44, 3449-3468.

Zhu, J, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, I. Eisenman and W. Liu, 2014. Linear weakening of the AMOC in response to receding glacial icesheets in CCSM3. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 6252-6258

Cheng J., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, Feng He, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, 2014: Model-proxy comparison of overshoot phenomenon of Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation at Bolling Allerod. Chinese Science Bulletin 59, 4510-4515.

Jiang, Z., H. Yang, Z. Liu, Y. Zhu and N. Wen, 2014: Assessing the influence of regional SST modes on the winter temperature in China: the effect of tropical Pacific and Atlantic. J. Clim. 27, 868–879

Wu P., Z. Liu, J. Cheng and G. Cheng, 2014: Simulation of spatial-temporal asynchronization of East Asia summer’s surfaceair temperature response to orbital forcing since the mid-Holocene. Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese) 57, 1757-1768

Wang, F., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, 2014: Observed local and remote influences of vegetation on the atmosphereacross North America using a model-validated statistical technique that first excludes oceanic forcings. J. Clim. 27, 362-382.

Wang, P., B. Wang, H. Cheng, J. Fasullo, Z. Guo, T. Kiefer and Z. Liu, 2014: The global monsoon across time scales: Is there coherent variability of regional monsoons? Clim. Past 10, 2007- 2052

Watras, C., J. Read, S. Morgan and Z Liu, 2014: Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: Hydroclimatic implications. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 456-462

Nace, T. E., G. S. Dwyer, C. R. Silva, C. A. Gigsby, D. Hollander, S. J. Burns, B. Otto-Bliesner,

Z. Liu, J. Zhu and P. A. Baker. 2014, The role of North Brazil Current transport in the paleoclimate of the Brazilian Nordeste margin and paleoceanography of the western tropical Atlantic during the late Quaternary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 415, 3-13.

Marson, J., I. Wainer, M. Mata and Z. Liu, 2014: The impacts of Meltwater Pulse-1A in the South Atlantic Ocean deep circulation since the Last Glacial Maximum. Clim. Past 10, 1723-1734 Kutzbach, J., G. Chen, Z. Liu, H. Cheng and L.Edwards, 2014: Potential role of winter rainfall in explaining increased  moisture in  the Mediterranean and Middle  Eastduring periods  of maximum orbitally-forced insolation seasonality. Clim. Dyn. 42, 1079-1095.

Han, G., X. Zhang, S. Zhang, X. Wu and Z. Liu, 2014: Mitigation of coupled model biases induced by dynamical coremisfitting through parameter optimization: simulation with a simple pycnocline prediction model. Nonlinear Processesin Geophysics 21, 357-366

Liu, Y., Z. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Rong, R. Jacob, S. Wu and F. Lu, 2014: Ensemble-based parameter estimation in a coupled GCM using the adaptive spatial average method. J. Clim. 27, 4002- 4014

Liu, Y., Z. Liu, S. Zhang, R. Jacob, F. Lu, X. Rong and S. Wu, 2014: Ensemble-based parameter estimation in a coupled GCM. J. Clim. 27, 1751-7162


Liu, W. and Z. Liu, 2013: A diagnostic indicator of the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in CCSM3. J. Clim. 26, 1926-1938

Liu, W., Z. Liu, A. Hu, 2013: The stability of an evolving Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett.40, 1562-1568.

He, F., J. Shakun, P. Clark, A. Carlson, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach, 2013: Northern Hemisphere forcing ofSouthern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation. Nature 494, 81-85.

Han G., X. Wu, S. Zhang, Z. Liu, W. Li, 2013: Error covariance estimation for coupled data assimilation using a Lorenz atmosphere and a simple pycnocline ocean model. J. Clim. 26, 10218-10231.

Liu, Z., Shu Wu, Shaoqing Zhang, Yun Liu and Xinyao Rong, 2013: Ensemble data assimilation in a simple coupled climatemodel: the role of ocean-atmosphere interaction. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1235-1248.

Wang F. Y., Z. Liu and M. Notaro, 2013: Extracting the dominant SST modes impacting North America climate: Acomprehensive assessment in the observation. J. Clim. 26, 5434-5452

Ma, D., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, G. Chen and Y. Liu, 2013: Simulated impacts of afforestation in East China monsoon region asmodulated by ocean variability. Clim. Dyn. 41, 2439-2450.

Wen, N., Z. Liu, and Q. Liu, 2013: Observational assessment of non-local heat flux feedback in the North Atlantic by GEFA. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 52, 645-653.

Yang, H., Y. Wang and Z. Liu, 2013: A modelling study of the Bjerknes compensation in the meridional heat transport in afreshening ocean. Tellus, A 65, 18480, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.18480

Song, Y. Y., Z. Wang and Z. Liu, 2013: Study of the main reasons causing the western Pacific SST anomaly. Acta ScientiarumNaturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (in Chinese) 5, 806 -812.

Fan, L., S.-I. Shin, Q. Liu, and Z. Liu, 2013: Relative importance of tropical SST anomalies in forcing East Asiansummer monsoon circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 24712477.

Lu, H., S. Yi, Z. Liu, J. Mason, D. Jiang, J. Cheng, T. Stevens, Z. Xu, E. Zhang, L. Jin, Z. Zhang, Z. Guo, Y. Wang and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2013: Variation of East Asian monsoon precipitation during the past 21 ka and potential CO2 forcing.  Geology 41, 1023-1026

Wu, P., Z. Liu, J. Cheng and Z. Sun, 2013: A simulation study on spatio-tempral asynchrnoism of East Asian Summer’sprecipitation variation since the mid-Holocene. Quatnrnay Sciences (in Chinese) 33, 1001-7410

Wen N. and Z. Liu, 2013: 海洋反馈研究中存在问题及其统计方法讨论,大气科学学报 2, 1674-7097.

Ma D., Z. Liu, S. Lv, M. Notaro, X. Rong, G. Cheng and F. Wang, 2013: Impacts of afforestation on climate over the East Asian monsoon region. Chinese Science Bull. 58, 20732081.

Yu Y., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, F. Alkolibi, E. Fadda and F. Bakhrjy, 2013: Assessing temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric dust over Saudi Arabia through satellite, radiometric, and station data. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 118, 13253–13264.

Jiang, Z. H., W. Ren, Z. Liu and H. Yang, 2013: Analysis of water vapor transport characteristics during Meiyu over the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley using the Lagrangian method. Acta Meteorologica Sinica 71, 295-304

Back, L., K. Russ, Z. Liu, K. Inoue, J. Zhang and B. Otto-Bliesner. 2013: Global hydrological cycle response to rapid andslow global warming. J. Clim. 22, 8781-8786


Liu, Z., A. Carlson, F. He, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brook, M. Wehrenberg, P. Clark, S. Wu,

J. Cheng, J. Zhang, D. Noone and J. Zhu, 2012: The Younger Dryer cooling and Arctic climate response to atmospheric CO2. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11101-11104.

Liu, Z., 2012: Dynamics of interdecadal climate variability: A historical perspective. J. Clim. 25, 1963-1995

Shakun J., P. Clark, Feng He, Z. Liu, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Shaun A. Marcott, Alan C. Mix, Andreas Schmittner and Edouard Bard: 2012: Global warming preceded by increasing CO2 during the last deglaciation. Nature 484, 49-54.

Carlson, A., D. Ulman, F. Anslow, F. He., P. Clark, Z. Liu and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2012: Modeling the surface mass-balance response of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to Bolling Warming and its contribution to Meltwater Pulse 1A. Earth Planet. Sci.Lett. 315-316, 24-29.

Liu, Z., N. Wen and L. Fan, 2012: Assessing Atmospheric Response to Surface Forcing in the Observation: Part I: Cross-Validation of annual response using GEFA, LIM and FDT. J. Clim. 25, 6796-6816

Liu, Z., L. Fan, S.I, Shin and Q-Y. Liu, 2012: Assessing Atmospheric Response to Surface Forcing in the Observation: Part II: Cross-validation of seasonal response using GEFA and LIM. J. Clim. 25, 6817-6834

Clark, P., J. Shakun, P. Baker, P. Bartlein, S. Brewer, E. Brook, A. Carlson, H. Cheng, D. Kaufman, Z. Liu, T. Marchitto, A. Mix, C. Morrill, B. Otto-Bliesner, K. Pahnke, J. Russell, J. Adkins, J. Blois, J. Clark, S. Colman, W. Curry, B. Flower, F. He, T. Johnson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, V. Markgraf, J. McManus, P. Moreno, J. Mitrovica, P. Moreno and J. Williams, 2012: Global climate evolution during the last deglaciation. Proc.Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 1134-1142.

Hu, A., G. Meehl, W. Han, A. Timmermann, B. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, W. Washington, W. Large, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. Kimoto, K. Lambeck and B. Wu, 2012: Role of Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyorbelt and glacial climate stability. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6417-6422

Veloz, S., J., Williams, F. He, B. Otto-Bliesner and Z. Liu, 2012: No-analog climates and shifting realized niches during the late Quaternary: implications for 21st-Century predictions by species distribution models. Global Change Biology 18, 1698-1713.

Williams, J., S. Veloz, S. Brewer, D. Nogues-Bravo, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner and F. He, 2012: The Ice Age ecologist: testing methods for reserve prioritization during the last global warming. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22, 289-301.

Murray D. S., A. E. Carlson, B. S. Singer, F. S. Anslow, Feng He, Marc Caffee, Z. Liu, B. L. Otto- Bliesner and S. A. Marcott, 2012. Northern Hemisphere forcing of the last deglaciation in southern Patagonia. Geology 40, 631-634.

Cheng J., P. Guo, F. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Liu, and W. Qiu. 2012, Reconstruction of thermohaline circulation intensity anomaly over 20th century under two kinds of modeling diagnostic features. Science in China Series D: Earth Sci. 42, 1778-1790.

Li, S., X. Rong, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, K. Fraedrich, 2012: Dynamic analog initialization for ensemble forecasting. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1406-1420.

Chen G., M. Notaro, Z. Liu and Y. Liu, 2012: Simulated local and remote biophysical effects of afforestation over Southeast United States in boreal summer. J. Clim. 25, 4511-4522

Wu X., S. Zhang, Z. Liu, A. Rosati, T. Delworth and Yun Liu, 2012: Impact of the geographic- dependent parameter optimization on climate estimation and prediction: simulation with an intermediate coupled model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 140, 3956-3971.

Wu, X., S. Zhang , Z. Liu, A. Rosati and T. Delworth, 2012: A study of impact of the geographic dependence of observingsystem on parameter estimation with an intermediate coupled model. Clim. Dyn. 40, 1789-1798.

Blois, J., J. Williams, M. Fitzpatrick, S. Ferrier, S. Veloz, F. He, Z. Liu, G. Manion and B. Otto- Bliesner, 2012: Modeling the climatic drivers of vegetation compositional dissimilarity since the Last Glacial Maximum, Ecography 35, 1-14

Jiang Z., Y. Wu, Z. Liu and N. Wen, 2012: GEFA analysis of China winter temperature anomaly in 2009/2010,TropicalMeteorology Acta (in Chinese) 2,19-24.

Wen N., Z. Liu, Z. Jiang, 2012: Review of GEFA analysis of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks.

Advances in Meteorological Science and Technology (in Chinese) 2,19-24

Liu, Y., J. Key, Z. Liu, X. Wang and S. Vavrus, 2012: A cloudier Arctic expected with diminishing sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L05705, doi:10.1029/2012GL051251 (highlighted by Nat. Climate Change and AGU)


Liu, Z., 2011: Glacial cycles and Indian monsoon: A southern push. Science 333,708-708

Zhong, Y., Z. Liu and M. Notaro, 2011: A GEFA assessment of observed global ocean influence on US precipitation variability: attribution to regional SST variability modes. J. Clim. 24, 693-707

Cheng, J., Liu, Z., He, F., and Otto-Bliesner, B. L. 2011: Impact of North Atlantic – GIN Sea exchange on deglaciation evolution of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Clim. Past Discuss. 7, 521-534.

Frankignoul, C., N. Chouaib and Z. Liu, 2011: Estimating the observed atmospheric response to SST anomalies: MaximumCovariance Analysis, Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment, and Maximum Response Estimation. J. Clim. 24, 2523-2539.

Marcott, S., P. Clark, L. Padman, G. Klinkhammer, S. Springer, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, A. Carlson, A. Ungerer, J. Padman, F. He, J. Cheng and A. Schmittner, 2011: Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13415-13419.

Fan, L., Z., Liu, and Q. Liu, 2011: Robust GEFA assessment of climate feedback to SST EOF modes. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 28,907-912.

Wu, S., Z. Liu, R. Zhang and T. Delworth, 2011: On the observed relationship between the Pacific decadal oscillation and theAtlantic Multi-decadal oscillation. J. Oceanogr. 67, 27-35.

Cheng, J., Z. Liu, F. He, B. Otto-Bliesner and E. Brady, 2011: Simulated two-stage recovery of the Atlantic overturning circulation during last deglaciation. AGU Monograph: Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts,Geophysical Monograph Series 193, 75-92.

Zhang, S.Q., Z. Liu, A. Rosati and T. Delworth, 2011: A study of enhancive parameter correction with coupled data assimilation for climate estimation and prediction using a simple coupled model. Tellus A. 63, 10963, DOI:10.3402/tellusa.v63i0.10963

Shi, Z., X. Liu, Y. Sun, Z. An, Z. Liu, and J. Kutzbach, 2011: Distinct responses of East Asian summer and wintermonsoons to astronomical forcing, Clim. Past 7, 1363-1370.

Notaro M., G. Chen and Z. Liu, 2011: Vegetation feedbacks to climate in the global monsoon regions. J. Clim. 24, 5740-5756


Liu, Z., 2010: Bimodality in a mono-stable climate-ecosystem model: the role of climate variability and soil moisture memory.J. Clim. 23, 1447-1455

Chen, G., Z. Liu, J. Kutzbach, S. Clemens, W. Prell and X. Liu, 2010: Modeling the time-dependent response of the Asiansummer monsoon to obliquity forcing in a coupled GCM: a PHASEMAP sensitivity experiment. Clim. Dyn. 36, 695-710.

Wen N., Z. Liu, Q. Liu and C. Frankignoul, 2010: Observed atmospheric response to global SST variability modes: an unified assessment using GEFA. J. Clim. 23, 1739-1759.

Liu, Z., M. Notaro and R. Gallimore, 2010: Indirect vegetation-soil moisture feedback: with application to Holocene NorthAfrica climate. Global Change Biology 16, 1733-1743.

Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu and Z. Liu, 2010: Linking Asian monsoon to Indian Ocean SST in the observation: possible roles ofIndian Ocean Basin Mode and Dipole Mode. J. Clim. 23, 5889- 5902.

Zhu X.H., K. Fraedrick, Z. Liu and R. Blender, 2010: A demonstration of long term memory and climate predictability. J. Clim. 23, 5021-5029

Cheng J., Z. Liu, F. He, B. Otto-Bliesner, P.W. Kuo and Z. X. Chen, 2010: Modeling evidence of North Atlantic climaticimpact on East Asia. Chinese Science Bull. 55, 3215-3221

Notaro, M., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, J. Williams, D. Gutzler and S. Collins, 2010: The complex seasonal cycle ofecohydrology in the Southwest United States. J. Geophys. Res.- Biogeosciences 115, G04034, doi:10.1029/2010JG001382

Liu, W., F. Bretherton, Z. Liu, L. Smith, H. Lu and C. Rutland, 2010: Breaking of progressive internal waves: convectiveinstability and shear instability. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40, 2243-2263.


Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, P. Clark, J. Lynch-Steiglitz, A. Carlson, W. Curry, E. Brook, R. Jacob, D. Erickson, J. Kutzbach and J. Cheng, 2009: Transient simulation of deglacial climate evolution with a new mechanismfor Bolling-Allerod warming. Science 325, 310-314.

Zhu X. J. and Z. Liu, 2009: Tropical SST response to global warming in the 20th century. J. Clim22,1305-1312

Mason, J., H. Lu, Y. Zhou, X. Miao, J.B. Swinehart, Z. Liu, R. J. Goble and S. Yi, 2009: Dune mobility and aridity at thedesert margin of northern China at a time of peak monsoon strength. Geology 37, 947-950.

Zhong Y. F. and Z. Liu, 2009: On the mechanism of Pacific multidecadal climate variability in CCSM3: the role of subpolarNorth Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39, 2052-2076

Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu and Z. Liu, L. Wu and F. Huang, 2009: Basin mode of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and northern hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19705, doi:10.1029/2009GL039559.


Liu, Z., N. Wen and Y. Liu, 2008: On the assessment of non-local climate feedback: I: the generalized EquilibriumFeedback Analysis. J. Clim. 21, 134-148.

Liu Z. and N. Wen, 2008: On the assessment of non-local climate feedback: II: EFA-SVD analysis and optimal feedback. J.Clim. 21, 5404-5418.

Zhong Y., Z. Liu and R. Jacob, 2008: The origin of Pacific Decadal Variability in the NCAR- CCSM3. J. Clim. 21, 114-133.

Kutzbach, J., X. Liu, Z. Liu and G. Chen, 2008: Simulation of the evolutionary response of global summer monsoons toorbital forcing over the past 280,000 years. Clim. Dyn. 30, 6567-6579.

Notaro, M., Y. Wang, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore and S. Levis, 2008: Combined statistical and dynamical assessment of thesimulated negative vegetation feedback on North African annual precipitation during the mid-Holocene. Global Change Biology 14, 347-368.

Pan A., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2008: Formation mechanism of the “stability Gap” and the North Pacific Central mode water.Chinese Journal of Geophysics 47, 461-470.

Bayler E. and Z. Liu, 2008: Wind-forced dynamics of the seasonal southern South China Sea gyre.

J. Geophys. Res.-Ocn, 113 C07014, doi:10.029/2007JC00519

Zhong Y. F. and Z. Liu, 2008: A joint statistical and dynamical assessment of atmospheric response to North Pacific oceanic variability in CCSM3. J. Clim. 21, 6044-6051

Lee D., Z. Liu and Y. Liu, 2008: Beyond thermal interaction between ocean and atmosphere: on the extratropical climatevariability due to wind-induced SST. J. Clim. 21, 2001-2018

White, W. B. and Z. Liu, 2008: Nonlinear alignment of El Nino to the 11-yr solar cycle. Geophys.

Res. Lett. 35, L19606, doi:10.1029/2008GL034831

Clemens, S. C., W. Prell, Z. Liu and G. Chen, 2008: Southern Hemisphere forcing of Pliocene d18O indicated by evolution ofIndo-Asian monsoons. Paleoceanography 23, PA4210, doi:10.1029/2008PA001638

Wyrwoll K-H., Z. Liu, G. Chen, J. Kutzbach and X. Liu, 2008: Sensitivity of Australia summer monsoon to tilt and precession forcing. Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 3043-3057.

Nie, J.S., J. King, Z. Liu, S. Clemens, W. Prell and X. M. Fang, 2008: Surface water freshening: A cause of North Pacific stratification from 2.75 Ma onward? Global and Planetary Change 64, 49-52

Notaro M. and Z. Liu, 2008: Joint statistical and dynamical assessment of vegetation feedbacks on climate over boreal forest.Clim. Dyn. 31, 691-712.


Liu, Z., Y. Liu, L. Wu and R. Jacob, 2007: Seasonal and long-term atmospheric responses to reemerging North Pacificocean variability: a combined dynamical and statistical assessment. J. Clim. 20, 955–980.

Liu, Z., and M. Alexander, 2007: Atmospheric bridge, oceanic tunnel, and global climatic teleconnections. Rev. Geophys. 45, RG2005, doi:10.1029/2005RG000172.

Liu, Z., Y. Wang, R. Gallimore, F. Gasse, T. Johnson, P. deMenocal, J. Adkins, M. Notaro, I.C. Prentice, J. Kutzbach, R. Jacob, P. Behling, L. Wang and E. Ong, 2007: Simulating the transient evolution and abrupt change of Northern Africaatmosphere–ocean–terrestrial ecosystem in the Holocene. Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 1818-1837.

Abram N., M. Gagan, Z. Liu, W. Hantoro , M. McCulloch and B. Suwargadi, 2007: Seasonal characteristics of the IndianOcean Dipole during the Holocene epoch. Nature 445, 299-302

Wu L., Z. Liu, C. Li and Y. Sun, 2007: Extratroical control of recent tropical Pacific decadal climate variability: a relayteleconnection. Clim. Dyn. 28,  99-112.

Wu, L., F. He and Z. Liu, 2007: Atmospheric teleconnections of tropical Atlantic variability: interhemispheric, tropical-extratropical and cross-basin interactions. J. Clim. 20, 856-870

Notaro, M., S. J. Vavrus and Z. Liu, 2007: Global vegetation and climate change due to future increases in CO2 as projectedby a fully coupled model with dynamic vegetation. J. Clim. 20, 70-90.

Notaro M. and Z. Liu, 2007: Potential impact of Eurasian boreal forest on North Pacific climate variability. J. Clim. 20, 981-992

Zhu, X. J., J. L. Sun, Q. Liu, Z. Liu and J. Martin, 2007: A synoptic analysis of the interannual variability of winter cyclone activity in the Aleutian Low region J. Clim. 20, 1523-1538.

Wang, Y., M. Notaro, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, S. Levis, and J.E. Kutzbach, 2007: Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models. Clim. Past 3, 961-975.

Yang, J, Q. Liu, S., Xie, Z. Liu and L. Wu, 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summermonsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02708, doi:10.1029/2006GL028571

Liu, X., Z. Liu, S. Clemens, W. Prell and J. Kutzbach, 2007: A coupled model study of glacial Asian Monsoon variabilityand Indian Ocean Dipole. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan 85, 1-10.

White, W. B. and Z. Liu, 2007: Resonant excitation of the quasi-decadal oscillation by the 11-year signal in the Sun'sirradiance. J. Geophys. Res.-Ocn 113, C01002, doi:10.1029/2006JC004057.


Liu, Z., M. Notaro, J. Kutzbach and N. Liu, 2006: Assessing global vegetation-climate feedbacks from the observation. J. Clim. 19, 787–814.

Notaro, M. Z. Liu and J. Williams, 2006: An observational assessment of climate-vegetation feedback in the U.S. J. Clim. 19, 763-786.

Vavrus S., M. Notaro and Z. Liu, 2006: A mechanism for abrupt climate change associated with tropical Pacific SSTs. J. Clim. 19, 242-256.

Liu, Q., N. Wen and Z. Liu, 2006: An observational study of the impact of the North Pacific SST on the atmosphere.Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18611, doi:10:1029/2006GL026082

Liu Q., Z. Liu and A. Pan, 2006, Conceptual model about the interaction between El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in far west equatorial Pacific. Science in China, Series D-Earth Sciences 49,  889-896

Liu Y., Z. An, H. Ma, Q., Cai, Z. Liu, J. Kutzbach, J. Shi, H. Song, J. Sun, Y. Liang, Q. Li, Y. Yang and L. Wang, 2006:Precipitation variation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded by the tree rings since 850 AD and its relevance to the Northern Hemisphere temperature. Science in China, Series D. Earth Sciences 49, 408-420

Liu, Z., 2006: Glacial thermohaline circulation and climate: forcing from the North or South? Adv. Atmos. Sci. 22, 199-206

Liu, X., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, S. Clemens and W. Prell, 2006: Hemispheric climate forcing and remote response of Asianmonsoon. J. Clim. 19, 695-6208

Liu, Z., Y. Wang, R. Gallimore, M. Notaro, C. I. Prentice, 2006: On the mechanism of abrupt change of Northern Africa environment in the Holocene: climate variability vs. vegetation feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L22709, doi:10.1.29/2006GL028062


Liu, Z., S. Shin, R. Webb, W. Lewis and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2005: Atmospheric CO2 forcing on glacial thermohaline andclimate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L02706, doi:10.1029/2004GL021929

Liu, Z., S. Vavrus. F. He, N. Wen and Y. Zhong, 2005: Rethinking tropical ocean response to global warming: the enhanced equatorial warming. J. Clim. 18, 4684-4700

Yang H., Q. Zhang, Y. Zhong, S. Vavrus, Z. Liu, 2005: How does extratropical warming affects ENSO? Geophys. Res. Lett.32, L01702, doi:10.1029/2004GL021624

Zhao, Y., P. Braconnot, O. Marti, S.P. Harrison, C. Hewitt, A. Kitoh, Z. Liu, U. Mikolajewicz, B. Otto-Bliesner and S. L. Weber, 2005: A multi-model analysis of ocean feedback on the African and Indian monsoon during the mid-Holocene.Clim. Dyn. 25, 777-800

Notaro, M., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, S. Vavrus, J. Kutzbach, C. Prentice and R. Jacob, 2005: Simulated and observed pre-industrial to modern vegetation and climate changes. J. Clim. 18, 3650-3671

An S-I, A. Timmermann, L. Bejarano, F.-F. Jin, Z. Liu and S. Tudhope, 2005: Modeling evidence for enhanced ENSOvariability during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoceagnoraphy 19, doi:10.1029/2004PA001020

Pan A., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2005: Periodic forcing and ENSO suppression in the Cane-Zebiak model. J. Oceanography 61, 109-113

Liu, Y, Q. Cai, J. Shi, M. Hughes, J. E. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, F. Ni and Z. An, 2005: Seasonal precipitation in the south-central Helen Mountain region, China, reconstructed from tree-ring width for the past 224 years. Can. J. For. Res. 35, 2403-2412

Yang H. and Z. Liu, 2005: Tropical-extratropical climate interaction as revealed in idealized coupled climate modelexperiments. Clim. Dyn., 24, 863-879.

Wen N., Z. Liu, C. Frankignoul, Q. Liu, 2005: Observations of SST, heat flux and ocean- atmosphere interaction over theNorth Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L24619, doi:10.1029/2005GL024871

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2005: North Atlantic decadal variability: air-sea coupling, oceanic memory, and potential northern hemisphere resonance. J. Clim. 18, 331-349

Wu, L., Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and X. Liu, 2005: Potential global climatic impacts of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L24710, doi:10.1029/2005GL024812.

Wu L., D. Lee and Z. Liu, 2005: The 1976/77 North Pacific climate regime shift: the role of subtropical ocean adjustment and coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. J. Clim. 18, 5125- 5140.

Wu L., F. He and Z. Liu, 2005: Coupled ocean-atmosphere response to tropical North Atlantic SST variability: TropicalAtlantic Dipole and ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21712, 10.1029/2005GL024222.


Liu, Z., Q. Zhang and L. Wu, 2004: The remote impact on tropical Atlantic climate variability: the dynamic assessment and statistical assessment. J. Clim. 17, 1529-1549

Liu, Z. and L. Wu, 2004: Atmospheric response to North Pacific SST: The role of ocean- atmosphere coupling. J. Clim. 17, 1859-1882

Yang H., Z. Liu and H. Wang, 2004: Influence of extratropical thermal and wind forcing on equatorial thermocline in anocean GCM. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 174-187

Yang H., Z. Liu and Q. Zhang, 2004: Tropical ocean decadal variability and the resonance of planetary wave basin modes: II: numerical study. J. Clim. 17, 1711-1721

Wu, L., Q. Zhang, and Z. Liu, 2004: Understanding the tropical Atlantic variability using coupled modeling surgery. In Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, C. Wang, S.-P. Xie and J.A. Carton (eds.), AGU Geophysical Monograph147, 157-170.

Liu, Z., S. Harrison, J. Kutzbach, B. Otto-Bliesner: 2004: Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback.  Clim. Dyn. 22, 157-182.

Liu, Z., W. Lewis and A. Ganopolski, 2004: A coordinated acceleration scheme for the simulation of long term climateevolution. Clim. Dyn. 22, 771-781


Liu, Z. and H. Yang, 2003: Extratropical control on tropical climate: atmospheric bridge and oceanic tunnel. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016492

Liu, Z., 2003: Tropical ocean decadal variability and the resonance of planetary wave basin modes: I: theory. J. Clim. 16, 1539-1550

Yang H. and Z. Liu, 2003: On basin modes in a tropical-extratropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr33, 2751-2763

Wu. L, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, R. Jacob, D. Lee, and Y. Zhong, 2003: A coupled modeling study of Pacific decadal variability:the Tropical Mode and the North Pacific Mode. J. Clim. 16, 1101- 1120

Wu, L. and Z. Liu, 2003: Decadal variability in the North Pacific: the Eastern North Pacific Mode. J. Clim. 16, 3111-3131

Wu, L., and Z. Liu, 2003: On the dynamics of North Atlantic decadal variability. Clivar Exchange 28.

Wang, D. , J. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Liu. 2003. Relative importance of wind and buoyancy forcing for interdecadal regime shiftsin the Pacific. Science in China 46, 417-427

Wang, D. J. Wang, L. Wu, and Z. Liu, 2003: Regime shifts in the North Pacific simulated by a COADS-driven isopycnalmodel.  Adv. Atmos. Sci. 20, 743-754.

Harrison, S., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, P. Bartlein, B. Otto-Bliesner, D. Muhs, I. Prentice and R. Thompson, 2003: Mid-Holocene climates of the Americas: a dynamical response to changed seasonality. Clim. Dyn. 20, 663-688

Shin S., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Kutzbach, S. Harrison, 2003: A NCAR CCSM simulation of the climate at theLast Glacial Maximum. Clim. Dyn. 20, 127-151

Miller, A., M. Alexander, G. Boer, F. Chai, K. Denman, D. Erickson, R. Frouin, A. Gabric, E. Laws, M. Lewis, Z. Liu, R. Murtugudde, S. Nakamoto, D. Nelson, J. Norris, J. Ohlmann, R. Perry, N. Schneider, K. Shell and A. Timmermann,2003: Potential feedbacks between Pacific ocean ecosystems and interdecadal climate variations. Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc. 84, 617-633

Liu, X., J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, Z. An, Li L., 2003: The amplification of Tibetan Plateau on the effect of orbital forcing on theEast Asian monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1839, doi:10.1029/2003GL017510.

Otto-Bliesner, B., E. Brady, S. Shin, Z. Liu, C. Shields, 2003: Modeling El Nino and its tropical teleconnections during theglacial-interglacial cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2198, doi:10.1029/2003GL08553

Loubere P., M. Richaud, Z. Liu and F. Mekik, 2003: Oceanic conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the onset ofENSO in the Holocene. Quat. Res. 60, 142-148

Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach, L. Li, C. Shields, 2003: Coupled climate simulations of the evolution of globalmonsoons in the Holocene. J. Clim. 16, 2472-2490

Liu, Z., E. Brady and J. Lynch-Steiglitz, 2003: Global ocean response to orbital forcing in the Holocene. Paleoceanography18, 1041, doi:10.1029/2002PA000819.


Liu, Z., 2002: How long is the memory of tropical ocean dynamics. J. Clim. 15, 3518-3522

Liu, Z., 2002: A simple model study of the forced response of ENSO to an external periodic forcing. J. Clim. 15, 1088-1098.

Liu, Z., W. Wu, R. Gallimore and R. Jacob, 2002: Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 , 10.1029/2001GL013735

Inui T. and Z. Liu, 2002: An interpretation of Pacific thermocline variability. The effect of wind forcing on subduction. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32, 1094-1105.

Vavrus, S., and Z. Liu, 2002: Understanding the response of the tropical atmosphere-ocean system to increased CO2 usingEquilibrium Asynchronous Coupling. Clim. Dyn. 19, 355-369.

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2002: An OGCM Simulation of seasonal and interannual variability in the surface layer Pacific of the equatorial band. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 19, 219-235.

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2002: Dynamic control of Pacific oceanic variability on the western boundary and marginal seas. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 96, 201-222.

Yang H., Q. Liu, Z. Liu, D, Wang and X. Liu, 2002: A GCM study of the dynamics of the upper ocean circulation of theSouth China Sea. J. Geophys. Res..-Ocn 107, 10.1029/2001JC001084, 22-1-14

Liu, Q.Y., Y. Jia, H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2002: Seasonal variation mechanism of sea surface height in the north of the SCS. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 24, 134-141

Shin S., Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady, J. Kutzbach, 2002: Southern Ocean sea-ice control of the glacial North Atlanticthermohaline circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, DOI:10.1029/2002GL015513

Wu L. and Z. Liu, 2002: Is tropical Atlantic variability driven by the North Atlantic Oscillation? Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014939

Wu, L., Q. Zhang and Z. Liu, 2002: Searching for the role of ENSO in the tropical Atlantic variability. Clivar Exchanges 25.

Liu, Z., S. Shin, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Kutzbach and E. Brady, 2002: Tropical Cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum andExtratropical Ocean Ventilation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL013938


Liu, Z., H. Yang and Q. Liu, 2001: Regional dynamics of seasonal variability of sea surface height in the South China Sea. J.Phys. Oceanogr. 31, 272-284

Yang, H., Q. Liu and Z. Liu, 2001: Sverdrup dynamics in the South China Sea. Progress in Natural Science 10, 1035-1039

Liu, Q, H. Yang and Z. Liu, 2000: Seasonal features of Sverdrup circulation in the South China Sea. Progress in NaturalScience 11, 202-206

Delire C., P. Behling, M. T. Coe, J.A. Foley, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, Z. Liu and S. Vavrus, 2001: Simulated response of theatmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2081-2084

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2001: On the upper ocean trend of the Pacific Ocean in the last 40 years. J. Clim. 14, 3738-3750.

Zhou W., M. John, Z. An, P.D. Deckker, Z. Liu, X. Liu, X. Lu, A. J. T. Jull, D. Donahue, 2001: Terrestrial evidence for aspatial structure of tropical-polar interconnections during the Younger Dryas Episode. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 191, 231-239

Wu, L., Z. Liu and R. Gallimore, 2001: Pacific interdecadal variability in a coupled model. Dynamics of Atmospheric andOceanic Circulations and Climate, ed. B. Wang, China Meteological Press, 486-507

Liu Q.Y., Haijun Yang, Shaoxia Wang, Z. Liu, 2001: Dynamic features of long Rossby wave in the North Pacific subtropical countercurrent. Chinese Journal of Geophysics 44, 27-37

Stephens M., Z. Liu and H. Yang, 2001: On the evolution of subduction planetary waves with application to Pacific decadal thermocline variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31, 1733-1746

Stephens M. Y. and Z. Liu, 2001: The response of the upper ocean to surface buoyancy forcing: a characteristic solution to wave propagation. Contemporary Mathematics 275, 117-127


Liu, Z., J. Kutzbach and L. Wu, 2000: Modeling climatic shift of El Nino variability in the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 2265-2268.

Liu, Z., S. Shin, P. Behling, W. Prell, M. Trend, S. Harrison and J. Kutzbach, 2000: Dynamic and observational constraints of sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 105-108.

Liu Z. and B. Huang, 2000: Causes of the warming trend of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1935-1938.

Wu, L., Z. Liu, and H. Hurlburt, 2000: Kelvin wave and Rossby wave interaction in the extratropical-tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1259-1262.

Liu Z. and L. Wu, 2000: Tropical Atlantic Oscillation in a coupled GCM. Atmos. Sci. Lett. 1, 26- 36

Wang, D. X. and Z. Liu, 2000: The pathway of interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean. Chinese Science Bulletin 45, 1555-1561

Vavrus, S., R. Gallimore and Z. Liu, 2000: A mixed-flux equilibrium asynchronous coupling scheme for acceleratingconvergence in ocean-atmosphere models. Clim. Dyn. 16. 821-831

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 2000: Temperature trends in the upper tropical Indian Ocean: 1955-1993. Dynamics of Atmosphericand Oceanic Circulations and Climate, Memorial Volume for Prof. Zhu Baozhen, China Ocean Meteorological, 413-433

Shin S. and Z. Liu, 2000: Response of equatorial thermocline to extratropical buoyancy forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 2883-2905


Liu, Z., 1999: Planetary wave modes in    thermocline circulation: Non-Doppler-shift    mode, advective mode and Greenmode. Quat. J. Royal Meteor. Soc. 125, 1315-1339

Liu, Z., 1999: Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 1036- 1055

Liu, Z. and S. Shin, 1999: On thermocline ventilation of active and passive tracers. Geophys. Res.

Lett. 26, 357-360.

Liu, Z., L. Wu and E. Bayler, 1999: Rossby wave -- coastal Kelvin wave interaction in the extratropics. I: low frequency adjustment in a closed basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 2383-2404 Liu, Z., L. Wu and H. Hurlburt, 1999: Rossbywave- Coastal Kelvin wave interaction in the extratropics: II: formation of island circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 2405-2418

Huang, B. and Z. Liu, 1999: Pacific subtropical-tropical thermocline water exchange in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean model. J. Geophys. Res.-Ocn. 104, 11,065-11,076

Wu, L, Z. Liu and H. Hurlbert, 1999: The effect of continental slope on buoyancy-driven circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 1881-1891

Wu, L., Z. Liu and H. Hurlburt, 1999: The effect of north-south gyre width on the inertial recirculation. Geophys. &Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 91, 45-63

Liu, Z., R. Gallimore, J. Kutzbach, W. Xu, Y. Golubev, P. Behling and R. Siegle, 1999: Modeling long term climate change with the Equilibrium Asynchronous Coupling scheme. Clim. Dyn. 15, 325-340

Zhang R. H and Z. Liu, 1999: Decadal thermocline variability in the North Pacific: two pathways around the subtropicalgyre. J. Clim. 12, 3273-3296

Liu, Z., R. Jacobs, J. Kutzbach, S. Harrison and J. Anderson, 1999: Asian monsoon impact on El Nino in the early Holocene. PAGES Newsletter  7 (2), 16-17


Liu, Z., 1998: On the role of ocean in the transient response of tropical climatology to global warming. J. Clim. 11, 864-875.

Liu, Z. and B. Huang, 1998: Why is there a tritium maximum in the central equatorial Pacific thermocline? J. Phys. Oceanogr. 28, 1527-1533.

Liu, Z. and R. Zhang, 1998: Propagation and mechanism of decadal upper ocean variability in the North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 739-742


Liu, Z. and B. Huang, 1997: A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue and Walker Circulation. J.Clim. 10, 1662-1679.

Liu, Z., 1997: Oceanic regulation of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78, 407-412.

Yang, H. and Z. Liu, 1997: Three-dimensional chaotic ocean transport: the Great Ocean Barrier. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 1258-1273.

Liu, Z., 1997: On the role of stratification in inertial recirculation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17, 926-940 Kutzbach J. and Z. Liu,1997: Oceanic feedback on the western African monsoon at 6000 BP. Science 278, 440-443.


Liu, Z., 1996: On the destruction of inertial recirculation by annual wind migration. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 242-256.

Liu, Z., 1996: Thermocline variability in different dynamic regions. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1633- 1645.

Liu, Z., 1996: Modeling the equatorial annual cycle with a linear coupled model. J. Clim. 9, 2376- 2385.

Kutzbach, J., P. Bartlein, J. Foley, S. Harrison, S. Hostetler, Z. Liu, E.C. Prentice and T. Webb, 1996: The potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions: a case study at 6000 years before present. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 727- 736

Sun, D. and Z. Liu, 1996: Dynamic ocean-atmosphere coupling: a thermostat for the tropics. Science 272, 1148-1150.


Liu, Z. and S.G.H. Philander, 1995: How different wind patterns affect the tropical-subtropical thermocline circulation inthe upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 449-462.


Liu,Z. and J. Pedlosky, 1994: Thermocline forced by annual and decadal surface temperature variation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24, 587-608,

Liu, Z. and S. Xie, 1994:    Equatorward propagation of coupled air-sea disturbances with application to the annual cycleof the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3807-3822.

Liu, Z. and H. Yang, 1994: Intergyre chaotic transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24, 1768-1782, Yang, H. and Z. Liu, 1994:Chaotic transport in ocean gyres. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 545-548. Liu, Z. , 1994: A simple model of the mass exchangebetween the subtropical and tropical  ocean.

J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24, 1153-1165.

Liu, Z., S. Philander and R. Pacanowski, 1994: A GCM study of tropical-subtropical upper ocean mass exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24, 2606-2623.


Liu, Z., 1993: Thermocline forced by varying wind. I: spin-up and spin-down. J. Phys. Oceanogr23, 2505-2522,

Liu, Z., 1993: Thermocline forced by varying wind. II: annual and decadal Ekman pumping. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23, 2523-2541,

Liu, Z., 1993: Interannual positive feedbacks in a simple extratropical air-sea coupling system. J. Atmos. Sci. 50,  3022-3028.

Liu, Z., 1993: Interannual planetary wave breaking in the presence of mean Ekman pumping and flow. J. Fluid Mechanics 253, 45-65

Liu Z., 1993: Penetration of interannual planetary waves across a gyre boundary. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean 17, 169-186.

Liu, Z., J. Pedlosky, D. Marshall, T. Warnocke, 1993: On the feedback of the Rhines-Young pool on the ventilatedthermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23, 1592-1596,

Liu, Z., 1993: A note on intergyre mass exchange due to a migrating wind. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean17, 157-167


Liu Z. 1990: On the influence of the continental slope on the inertial western boundary current-- the enhanced transport andrecirculation. J. Mar. Res. 48, 254-284


Liu Z. 1989: Orographically forced oscillation in a barotropic atmosphere. Scientia Atmospherica Sinica 13, 166-177.

Book Chapters

Jomelli, V., Favier V., D. Brunstein, F. He and Z. Liu, 2016: High altitude temperatures in the tropical Andes over the last15,000 years estimated from a glacial model. Glaciers: Formation, Climate Change and their Effects, Chap.3. 53-70. Edited by Nicholas Doyle, 2016 Nova Science Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-63484-941-8

Liu Z., 2015: A review of the dynamics of Pacific interdecadal climate variability. Climate Change: Multidecadal and Beyond.World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol.6,

C. P. Chang ed. 159-170.

Liu, Z. and P. Braconnot. 2012: Modelling of tropical environment during the Quaternary. Chapter 9 in “Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Tropics”, ed. Sarah Metcalfe and David. Nelsh., Wiley-Blackwell.

Branconnot, P., S.P. Harrison, S. Joussaume, C.D. Hewitt, A. Kitoh, J.E. Kutzbach, Z. Liu, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Syktus, andN. Weber, 2004: Evaluation of PMIP coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of the mid-Holocene. In: Past ClimateVariability through Europe and Africa,

R.W. Battarbee et al. (eds), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 515-533

Zhu B.Z., F.F. Jin and Z. Liu. 1990: An introduction to the nonlinear dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean. (in Chinese).  China Ocean Press. 328pp